Hur underhålls en hybridstat? Indikationer från Albanien och Makedonien




How is a Hybrid State Maintained? Examples from Albania and Macedonia

How is a hybrid state maintained? Today, several countries undergoing democratic reforms are also backsliding towards greater authoritarianism. This article draws on election data from Macedonia and Albania to show how a country can display elements of democratic improvement and democratic deterioration within the same policy field. The Albanian case shows how the political parties, with an anchoring in legislation, work to make the electoral administration politically dependent. This enables the political parties to exert control over central aspects of the distribution of power. By contrast, the case of Macedonia shows how undemocratic behaviors can become institutionalized and gradually accepted, even as other features of the electoral process undergo improvement. Common to both countries are patterns of patronage that serve to maintain a unique organization of power: the democratic façade is improved, but the undemocratic behavior remains.

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Hvordan sitere

Giandomenico, J. (2018). Hur underhålls en hybridstat? Indikationer från Albanien och Makedonien. Nordisk Østforum, 32, 21–41.




Emneord (Nøkkelord):

hybrid states, elections, Balkans, Albania, Macedonia