EU-medlem och Rysslands granne: En analys av Finlands strategiska kultur

  • Hanna Smith The European Centre of Excellence for Countering Hybrid Threats och Aleksanteri Institute, University of Helsinki


This article begins by examining strategic culture studies, in particular Alan Bloomfield’s concept of different sub-cultures in strategic culture. It then focuses on the border between Russia and Finland and how Finnish EU membership was made possible by Finland’s decision not to challenge the WWII border treaty with the Soviet Union after the Soviet collapse. Next, it investigates the debates and public opinion relating to Finland’s 1994 EU referendum, to see how the dynamics changed three strategic cultural sub-groups: “self-defence”, “Westernisers” (including Western international organizations) and “Reassurance and Dialogue with Russia”. In conclusion, it is argued that EU membership altered the hierarchy of these strategic culture sub-groups in Finland, as well as their substance. These changes were, however, more evolutionary than revolutionary.

Finland,, Russia, European Union, strategic culture, subgroups