Nordisk Østforum 2021-10-20T10:15:16+02:00 Tidsskriftet Nordisk Østforum Open Journal Systems <p>Nordisk Østforum (NØF) dekker politisk, økonomisk og kulturell utvikling i Russland, Balkan, Øst-Europa og det postsovjetiske området. Tidsskriftet inviterer forskere til å ta del i den nordiske debatten om utviklingen i et av våre viktigste nærområder.</p> En kinesisk jernbane til Arktis? Historien om Belkomur – så langt 2021-09-13T07:56:22+02:00 Arild Moe <p><strong>Abstract: A Chinese Railway to the Arctic? The Story of Belkomur – so Far</strong><br>The further development of the Northern Sea Route, including the associated logistical chains and infrastructure, enjoys high priority in Russia, and inadequate south–north transportation capacity is recognized as a problem. China has shown increasing interest in Arctic shipping over the past ten years. The construction of a railway from the Urals, with connections to China, to a deep-water port with access to the Arctic Ocean appeared attractive, both as a strategic opportunity for China and as a natural area for Chinese engagement in Russia, given announcements of the close partnership and common interests between the two countries. Since 2012 various Chinese companies have shown interest in investing, and the conclusion of a concession agreement has been announced several times. The Russian federal authorities have voiced support, without committing budget funding. Increasingly, however, critical remarks have been heard from the federal government, although regional support remains strong. As of mid-2021 no firm agreement had been signed, and the project was put on hold. Reviewing the history of the project since Chinese companies were first engaged, this article offers insights on Russian regional authorities’ scope for manoeuvre and the relationship between central and regional power. It also reveals Russian misinterpretations of Chinese interest in the project.</p> 2021-09-13T07:53:04+02:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2021 Arild Moe Sikkerhetspolitisk minnediplomati: Opprettelsen av Frigjøringsmonumentet i Kirkenes 1945–1952 2021-06-30T09:15:23+02:00 Joakim Aalmen Markussen <p><strong>Abstract: Security Policy and Memory Politics: Establishing the Soviet Liberation Monument in Kirkenes, 1945–1952</strong><br>A few kilometers from the border with Russia, in the town of Kirkenes in the easternmost corner of Northern Norway, there stands a bronze statue of a Soviet soldier looking out over the borderland. The Soviet Liberation Monument, as the statue is called, was unveiled in 1952 by the Norwegian authorities, in gratitude for the Soviet liberation of the East Finnmark area in 1944. The statue has served as a meeting place for regular commemorative ceremonies involving the Norwegian and Soviet authorities, throughout the Cold War and up until the present. This article explores the interplay between security policy and memory politics at the onset of the Cold War by examining the seven-year long process of establishing this monument. As the Iron Curtain descended over Europe, the monument and the memories attached to it became important tools with which Norway developed a critical dialogue with its great-power neighbor. The article shows how the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs learned how to use the collective memories of the Soviet liberation to ensure Norway’s security-policy goal of low tension in its relations with the USSR.</p> 2021-06-25T14:49:47+02:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2021 Joakim Aalmen Markussen Dragkamp og balansegang. Frigjøringsmarkeringene i Kirkenes 1954–1994: Et minnepolitisk perspektiv 2021-05-07T14:47:15+02:00 Kari Aga Myklebost Joakim Aalmen Markussen <p><strong>Abstract: Commemorating the Red Army Liberation in Kirkenes, Norway, 1954–1994<br></strong>This study traces the development over fifty years of the joint Norwegian–Soviet/Russian commemorations of the Red Army liberation of the eastern part of Finnmark County, Norway, in October 1944. The first commemorative events were held in October 1954 in the town of Kirkenes close to the Norwegian–Soviet border. Throughout the Cold War and into the post-Soviet period, such events have been arranged in Kirkenes every five years, with representatives of the Norwegian state authorities acting as hosts to a Soviet/Russian delegation. The focal point of these events has been a ceremony held by the Liberation Monument, unveiled in 1952 to honour the Red Army soldiers who liberated Norwegian territory by driving back the Nazi occupation forces. This article documents how the tradition of joint commemorations developed across the Iron Curtain divide as part of a predominantly diplomatic struggle over the events of October 1944, between Norway, a small state and NATO-member, and the superpower that was the Soviet Union. Our study concludes that, despite the struggle, which stemmed from Cold War tensions and competing security perceptions and interests, these joint commemorations have served as a stabilizing element in bilateral relations, producing a narrative not only about the Red Army liberation of eastern Finnmark, but also of friendship and mutual respect between the peoples of Norway and Russia, and of a long tradition of peaceful relations between the two states.</p> 2021-05-07T09:44:24+02:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2021 Kari Aga Myklebost, Joakim Aalmen Markussen Osäkerhetens politik i praktiken: Presidentvalet 2020 som förändrade Belarus 2021-05-07T14:46:12+02:00 Sofie Bedford <p><strong>Abstract: ‘The Politics of Uncertainty’ in Practice: The 2020 Presidential Election that Changed Belarus<br></strong>Up until 2020 Aleksandr Lukashenka’s authoritarian regime had ruled Belarus for 26 years without major challenges. Thus, the popular mobilization that took shape in connection with the August 2020 presidential election came as a surprise. It was not the first time that elections in Belarus were not fair – but it was the first time that large sectors of the population reacted openly. Six months later, Belarusians all over the country were still contesting the falsified results. What contributed to this mobilization and politicization of a previously largely apolitical society? Why does that development represent such a serious threat to the authoritarian system? This study sees the Belarusian presidential election and its aftermath as illustrating the ‘politics of uncertainty’ of electoral authoritarian regimes. Because of the intrinsic insecurity of authoritarian systems, all regular elections in that context entail risks, which in theory might lead to change. In Belarus, the emergence of latent threats to the regime’s legitimacy in the form of social cleavages and an economic crisis, combined with the fundamental dynamics of the ‘election game’, amplified this instability. The election served as the starting point for a process of transformation that became the most serious threat ever faced by the Lukashenka regime.</p> 2021-05-07T09:41:37+02:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2021 Sofie Bedford Frygtens Logik. Den kolde krig – en ny global historie 1917–1961 2021-10-11T09:20:35+02:00 Helge Pharo <p>Helge Ø. Pharo, University of Oslo, reviews <em>The Logic of Fear. The Cold War - a New Global History 1917-1961</em>, by Poul Villaume (Gads forlag 2020).</p> 2021-10-11T08:58:02+02:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2021 Helge Pharo Putin’s Russia and the Falsification of History: Reasserting Control over the Past 2021-10-11T08:57:15+02:00 Håvard Bækken <p>Håvard Bækken, Senior Researcher at the Norwegian Institute for Defence Studies, reviews <em>Putin’s Russia and the Falsification of History: Reasserting Control over the Past</em>, by Anton Weiss-Wendt (Bloomsbury Academic, 2021).</p> 2021-10-11T08:57:05+02:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2021 Håvard Bækken Putin 2021-10-11T08:54:56+02:00 Flemming Splidsboel Hansen <p>Flemming Splidsboel Hansen, Senior Researcher at the Danish Institute for International Studies, reviews <em>Putin</em>, by Hans-Wilhelm Steinfeld (Cappelen Damm, 2020).</p> 2021-10-11T08:54:46+02:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2021 Flemming Splidsboel Hansen Constructions and Instrumentalization of the Past: A Comparative Study of Memory Management in the Region 2021-10-11T08:53:14+02:00 Rasmus Nilsson <p>Rasmus Nilsson, University College London, reviews <em>Constructions and Instrumentalization of the Past: A Comparative Study of Memory Management in the Region</em>, edited by Ninna Mörner (CBEES, 2020).</p> 2021-10-11T08:53:02+02:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2021 Rasmus Nilsson The The Russian Path: Ideas, Interests, Institutions, Illusions 2021-09-15T08:43:22+02:00 Ingerid M. Opdahl <p><em>The Russian Path: Ideas, Interests, Institutions, Illusions</em> by Dmitry Travin, Vladimir Gel'man, Otar Marganiya, is reviewed by Ingerid M. Opdahl, associate professor at the Norwegian Institute for Defence Studies.</p> 2021-09-15T08:27:42+02:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2021 Ingerid M. Opdahl Migration and Hybrid Political Regimes: Navigating the Legal Landscape in Russia 2021-09-15T08:42:25+02:00 Anna-Liisa Heusala <p><em>Migration and Hybrid Political Regimes: Navigating the Legal Landscape in Russia</em> by Rustram Urinboyev (University of California Press 2021) is reviewed by Anna-Liisa Heusala, of the University of Helsinki, Aleksanteri Institute - Finnish Centre for Russian and East European Studies.</p> 2021-09-15T08:27:22+02:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2021 Anna-Liisa Heusala Rusland som militær stormagt 2021-09-15T08:41:41+02:00 Tor Bukkvoll <p><em>Russia as a Military Power</em>, edited by Niels Bo Poulsen and Jørgen Staun (Djøf Forlag 2021) is reviewed by Tor Bukkvoll, of the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI).</p> 2021-09-15T08:27:07+02:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2021 Tor Bukkvoll Nyckelaktörerna för rysk cyberstrategi: 2000–2020 2021-08-16T09:25:30+02:00 Bjørn Svenungsen <p>Bjørn Svenungsen, of the Norwegian Institute for Defence Studies, reviews Carolina Vendil Pallin's report for the Swedish Defence Research Agency titled <em>The Key Players in Russia's Cyber Strategy: 2000–2020 (Nyckelaktörerna för rysk cyberstrategi: 2000–2020)</em>.</p> 2021-08-16T08:37:30+02:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2021 Bjørn Svenungsen Det tabte Tjetjenien: Erindringer fra en borgerkrig 2021-08-16T09:24:49+02:00 Maryam Sugaipova <p>Maryam Sugaipova, of the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs, reviews <em>Det tabte Tjetjenien: Erindringer fra en borgerkrig</em> (<em>What Chechnya Lost: Memories of a Civil War</em>) by Zulay Magazieva,</p> 2021-08-16T08:37:04+02:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2021 Maryam Sugaipova Russiske kjernefysiske styrker 2021-08-16T09:24:11+02:00 Kristin Ven Bruusgaard <p>Dr. Kristin Ven Bruusgaard reviews the report <em>Russian Nuclear Forces </em>written by Steinar Høibråten and Halvor Kippe at the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment.&nbsp;</p> 2021-08-16T08:36:41+02:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2021 Kristin Ven Bruusgaard Aleksandr Puškin: Russlands store dikter 2021-06-14T08:39:33+02:00 Julie Hansen <p>Julie Hansen, associate professor of Slavic languages at Uppsala University, reviews <em>Aleksander Pushkin. Russia's Great Poet</em> written by Erik Egeberg.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-06-14T08:30:10+02:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2021 Julie Hansen Between Lenin and Bandera: Decommunization and Multivocality in (post)Euromaidan Ukraine 2021-10-20T10:15:16+02:00 Per Anders Rudling <p>Per Anders Rudling, Wallenberg Academy Fellow at Lund University, reviews <em>Between Lenin and Bandera: Decommunisation and Multivocality in (post)Euromaidan Ukraine </em>written by Anna Kutina.</p> 2021-06-14T08:29:40+02:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2021 Per Anders Rudling Det russiske imperiet: Fra sammenbrudd til triumf 2021-06-14T08:37:56+02:00 Klas-Göran Karlsson <p>Klas-Göran Karlsson, professor in history at Lund University, reviews <em>Det Russiske imperiet. Fra sammenbrudd til triumph (The Russian Empire: From Chaos to Ascendancy) </em>by Halvor Tjønn (Dreyers forlag 2020).</p> 2021-06-14T08:29:17+02:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2021 Klas-Göran Karlsson Tourism and Travel during the Cold War: Negotiating Tourist Experiences across the Iron Curtain 2021-05-11T09:40:23+02:00 Thomas Ubbesen <p>Thomas Ubbesen reviews <em>Tourism and Travel during the Cold War: Negotiating Tourist Experiences across the Iron Curtain</em>, edited by Sune Bechmann Pedersen and Christian Noack.</p> 2021-05-11T09:25:20+02:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2021 Thomas Ubbesen The Post-Soviet Politics of Utopia: Language, Fiction and Fantasy in Modern Russia 2021-05-11T09:39:45+02:00 Fabian Heffermehl <p>Fabian Heffermehl, researcher at the University of Oslo, reviews<em> The Post-Soviet Politics of Utopia: Language, Fiction and Fantasy in Modern Russia&nbsp;</em>edited by Mikhail Suslov and Per Arne Bodin.</p> 2021-05-11T09:24:59+02:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2021 Fabian Heffermehl Geopolitical Imagination: Ideology and Utopia in Post-Soviet Russia 2021-05-11T09:39:01+02:00 Iver Neumann <p>Iver Neumann, director of the Fritjof Nansen Institute, reviews <em>Geopolitical Imagination: Ideology and Utopia in Post-Soviet Russia&nbsp;</em>by Mikhail Suslov.</p> 2021-05-11T09:24:33+02:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2021 Iver Neumann The Russian Revolutions of 1917: The Northern Impact and Beyond 2021-04-15T09:27:37+02:00 Erik Kulavig <p>Erik Kulavig reviews <em>The Russian Revolutions of 1917: The Northern Impact and Beyond</em> edited by Kari Aga Myklebost, Jens Petter Nielsen and Andrei Rogatchevski.</p> 2021-04-15T08:35:56+02:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2021 Erik Kulavig Russlands rebeller: Protest og reaksjon i Putins Russland (2011–2020) 2021-04-19T08:26:52+02:00 Anni Roth Hjermann <p><em>Russia’s Rebels: Protest and Reaction in Putin’s Russia (2011–2020), </em>by Geir Flikke, is reviewed by Anni Roth Hjermann, advisor at the Norwegian Institute of Foreign Affairs.</p> 2021-04-15T08:35:35+02:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2021 Anni Roth Hjermann I grenseland. Historien om Frode Berg og livet på innsiden av norsk etterretning og russiske fengsler 2021-04-15T09:23:59+02:00 Jardar Østbø <p><em>Crossing the Border. The Story of Frode Berg and Life Inside the Norwegian Intelligence Services and Russian Prisons, </em>by Morten Jentoft, is reviewed by Jardar Østbø, associate professor at the Norwegian Institute for Defence Studies.</p> 2021-04-15T08:35:18+02:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2021 Jardar Østbø Freedom of Expression in Russia’s New Mediasphere 2021-03-16T15:54:23+01:00 Gunnar Nygren <p>Gunnar Nygren, professor emeritus at Södertörn University, Stockholm,&nbsp; reviews <em>Freedom of Expression in Russia’s New Mediasphere&nbsp;</em>edited by Marielle Wijermars and Katja Lehtisaari.&nbsp;</p> 2021-03-16T15:42:59+01:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2021 Gunnar Nygren Social Distinctions in Contemporary Russia: Waiting for the Middle Class Society? 2021-03-16T15:51:06+01:00 Aadne Aasland <p><strong>Abstract: Social Distinctions in Contemporary Russia: Waiting for the Middle Class Society?</strong><br>Aadne Aasland (NIBR, Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research, Oslo Metropolitan University) reviews <em>Social Distinctions in Contemporary Russia: Waiting for the Middle Class Society?</em> edited by&nbsp; Jouko Nikula and Mikhail Chernysh (Routledge, 2020).</p> 2021-03-16T15:42:37+01:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2021 Aadne Aasland Russia as Civilization: Ideological Discourses in Politics, Media, and Academia 2021-03-16T15:49:52+01:00 Pål Kolstø <p><strong>Abstract: Russia as Civilization: Ideological Discourses in Politics, Media, and Academia</strong><br>Pål Kolstø (University of Oslo, Department of Literature, Area Studies and European Languages) reviews <em>Russia as Civilization: Ideological Discourses in Politics, Media, and Academia</em>, edited by Kåre Johan Mjør and Sanna Turoma (Routledge, 2020).</p> 2021-03-16T15:42:14+01:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2021 Pål Kolstø Den yderste grænse: danske frivillige i de baltiske uafhængighedskrige 2021-02-15T07:59:08+01:00 Lars Johannsen <p><strong>Abstract: The Outermost Border: Danish Volunteers in the Baltic Wars of Liberation</strong><br>Lars Johannsen (Aarhus University, Denmark) reviews<em> Den yderste grænse: danske frivillige i de baltiske uafhængighedskrige</em> (<em>The Outermost Border: Danish Volunteers in the Baltic Wars of Liberation</em>) written by Mikkel Kirkebæk (published in 2019 by Lindhardt og Ringhof Forlag).</p> 2021-02-15T07:52:47+01:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2021 Lars Johannsen Russisk forsvarspolitikk og militær tilstedeværelse i Kaukasus og Sentral Asia 2021-02-15T16:15:39+01:00 Kristin Fjæstad <p><strong>Abstract: </strong><strong>Russia's Defence Policy and Military Presence in the Caucasus</strong><strong> and Central Asia<br></strong>These two reports, <em>Security in the Caucasus. Russian policy and military posture</em> and <em>Security in the Caucasus. Russian policy and military posture</em>, analyse and discuss Russia’s security policy and military posture after 2014 in two regions often described as part of Russia’s ‘near abroad’, the Caucasus and Central Asia. The reports find that although both regions are considered as within Russia’s ‘sphere of influence’, the Russian military structure and policy varies significantly. While geared towards crisis management of potential conflicts in Central Asia, the frozen conflicts in the South Caucasus have made Russia set up for regional war.</p> 2021-02-15T07:52:25+01:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2021 Kristin Fjæstad Law and Power in Russia: Making Sense of Quasi-Legal Practices 2021-03-09T14:28:40+01:00 Anna Jonsson Cornell <p><strong>Abstract: Law and Power in Russia: Making Sense of Quasi-Legal Practices</strong><br>Anna Jonsson Cornell (Department of Law, Uppsala University, Sweden) reviews <em>Law and Power in Russia: Making Sense of Quasi-Legal Practices</em> by Håvard Bækken (published in 2019 by Routledge).</p> 2021-02-15T07:52:08+01:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2021 Anna Jonsson Cornell The Ghost Boulevard 2021-01-18T13:35:25+01:00 Thomas Borén <p><strong>Abstract: The Ghost Boulevard</strong><br>Thomas Borén, from the Department of Human Geography at Stockholm University, reviews&nbsp;<em>The Ghost Boulevard </em>by Bojan Borić (published in 2020 by KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and the Built Environment, Stockholm).&nbsp;</p> 2021-01-18T13:23:33+01:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2021 Thomas Borén Vi var folket. Møde med østeuropæerne 30 år efter Murens fald 2021-01-18T13:42:34+01:00 Mette Skak <p><strong>Abstract: We Were the People. Meetings with Eastern Europeans 30 Years After the Fall of the Berlin Wall</strong><br>Mette Skak (Aarhus University) reviews <em>Vi var folket. </em><em>Møde med østeuropæerne 30 år efter Murens fald </em>(<em>We Were the People. </em><em>Meetings with Eastern Europeans 30 Years After the Fall of the Berlin Wall) </em>written by Thomas Ubbesen and Anne Haubek.</p> 2021-01-18T13:23:03+01:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2021 Mette Skak Hva vil russerne med Norge? 2021-01-21T08:55:48+01:00 Øyvind Nordsletten <p><strong>Abstract: What Do the Russians Want with Norway? </strong><em><br>What Do the Russians Want with Norway? </em>(<em>Hva vil russerne med Norge?</em>), by Bernhard L. Mohr, is reviewed by Øyvind Nordsletten, Norway's Former Ambassador to Moscow.</p> 2021-01-18T13:22:36+01:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2021 Øyvind Nordsletten