https://tidsskriftet-nof.no/index.php/noros/issue/feed Nordisk Østforum 2022-05-04T10:15:15+02:00 Tidsskriftet Nordisk Østforum nof@nupi.no Open Journal Systems <p>Nordisk Østforum (NØF) dekker politisk, økonomisk og kulturell utvikling i Øst-Europa, Russland, det postsovjetiske området og på Balkan. Tidsskriftet inviterer forskere til å ta del i den nordiske debatten om utviklingen i et av våre viktigste nærområder.</p> https://tidsskriftet-nof.no/index.php/noros/article/view/3558 Språkpolitikk i Slovakia og Tsjekkia etter 1993 2022-05-04T10:15:15+02:00 Karen Gammelgaard karen.gammelgaard@ilos.uio.no <p><strong>Abstract: Language policy in Slovakia and the Czech Republic after 1993</strong><br>The establishment of the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic in 1993 sparked challenges for language policy in the two new states. From a linguistic point of view, the Czech and Slovak languages are very similar but the language situations in the two countries differ: Slovakia is home to two sizable linguistic minorities (Hungarian and Romani), whereas Czechia houses several small minority languages. Applying Robert L. Cooper’s and Joshua A. Fishman’s analytical categories and focusing on the activities of national politicians and prominent linguists, this article examines status and corpus planning in the two countries. In Slovakia, politicians have engaged intensely in status planning, focused on legislating Slovak as a state language. The establishment of a state language opened for political interference in corpus planning. In Czechia, status planning started out from a liberal platform in the 1990s, and interest mainly focused on corpus planning. Hotly debated questions of corpus planning put Czech linguistic authorities on the defensive. Increasingly, adaptations to the charters and conventions of the European Council have co-shaped both countries’ language policy. During the period analyzed here, Slovakia has seen the linguistic standardization of Rusyn and Romani, and linguists in both countries have advanced their theoretical understanding of corpus planning.</p> 2022-05-04T10:08:47+02:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2022 Karen Gammelgaard https://tidsskriftet-nof.no/index.php/noros/article/view/3357 Rysslands konservativa vändning och den globala anti-genusrörelsen 2022-03-18T10:28:17+01:00 Emil Edenborg emil.edenborg@gmail.com <p>The amendments to the Constitution of the Russian Federation adoped after a 2020 referendum included a constitutional ban on same-sex marriage. This is a recent manifestation of the turn to ‘traditional values’ in Russian politics and society, the best-known expression of which is the 2013 ban on ‘propaganda for non-traditional sexual orientation’. This development cannot be understood as solely reflecting ‘traditional’ attitudes of the Russian population, nor as a backlash against LGBTQ activism. The turn to ‘traditional values’ must be considered in the context of a global pattern of increased pro-family mobilization, which opposes LGBTQ rights, feminism and the alleged undermining of gender as biologically determined and strictly binary – described by researchers as ‘anti-gender mobilization’. Traditionalist politics in Russia should be analysed in a transnational and international perspective, but conservative mobilization is not a monolithic phenomenon. Using the concept of ‘discourse coalition’ developed by Maarten Hajer, I show how the identification of shared storylines enables a range of actors to act in similar ways, sometimes coordinating their actions, despite ideological, religious or strategic disagreements, on the domestic as well as the global arena.</p> 2022-03-18T10:21:28+01:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2022 Emil Edenborg https://tidsskriftet-nof.no/index.php/noros/article/view/3513 Putins Rusland 2022-04-20T10:10:18+02:00 Helene Carlbäck helene.carlback@sh.se <p><em>Putins Ryssland</em> är en antologi om den moderna politiska och ekonomiska utvecklingen i landet. Regimens utveckling i alltmer auktoritär riktning och näringslivets oförmåga att ta sig ur en ensidig inriktning på råvaruproduktion är några ämnen som belyses, liksom interaktionen mellan en alltmer offensiv säkerhetspolitik och de ekonomiska sanktionerna från väst som en följd av aggressionen mot stater i det nära utlandet.</p> <p><em>Putins Ryssland</em> (<em>Putin’s Russia</em>) presents contributions by Russia specialists on recent political and economic developments in the country. In particular, the authors note the tendency towards an increasingly authoritarian political system, as well as the inability of the economic sector to shift towards more diversified production, away from the focus on extraction of raw materials. One chapter is dedicated to the interaction between the Kremlin’s increasingly offensive security policy and the Western economic sanctions triggered by Russian aggression towards states in its near abroad.</p> 2022-04-20T08:55:17+02:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2022 Helene Carlbäck https://tidsskriftet-nof.no/index.php/noros/article/view/3644 Political Dissent and Democratic Remittances: The Activities of Russian Migrants in Europe 2022-04-20T10:19:38+02:00 Katrine Stevnhøj katrine.stevnhoej@hum.ku.dk <p>Det seneste årti er politiske rettigheder i Rusland blevet kraftigt indskrænkede. Efterladt med et valg mellem at tie eller flytte, vælger flere civilsamfundsaktører at fortsætte deres aktiviteter uden for landets grænser. <em>Political Dissent and Democratic Remittances:The Activities of Russian Migrants in Europe</em>, et nyt kvalitativt, etnografisk studie undersøger aktiviteterne hos dem, der udøver systemkritik efter at have forladt Rusland.</p> <p>Over the past decade, political freedoms in Russia have severely restricted. Faced with the choice between leaving the country or being left without a voice, more and more civil society actors are choosing to conduct their activities abroad. <em>Political Dissent and Democratic Remittances:The Activities of Russian Migrants in Europe</em> is a new qualitative ethnographic study that explores the activities of those who have Russia in order to be able to voice their political dissent.</p> 2022-04-20T08:54:57+02:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2022 Katrine Stevnhøj https://tidsskriftet-nof.no/index.php/noros/article/view/3633 Putins värsta fiende: Aleksej Navalnyj och hans anhängare 2022-04-20T10:22:09+02:00 Inna Sangadzhieva is@nhc.no <p>Aleksei Navalnyj har blitt en politiker av føderal størrelse, som våget å sette Vladimir Putins posisjon som Russlands øverste leder i tvil. Gjennom en etablering av horisontale antikorrupsjonsnettverk over hele landet, har Navalnyj forsøkt å returnere politikken tilbake til samfunnet. Kalle Kniviläs bok <em>Putins verste fiende</em> følger FSB jakten på Aleksej Navalnyj og er en viktig beretning om forholdet mellom liv og død, mellom redsel og mot, og mellom et fritt og et fanget menneske.</p> <p>Alexey Navalny has become a politician of federal calibre, the man who dared to question Vladimir Putin’s position as the head of Russia. By establishing a horizontal anti-corruption network over the entire country, Navalny sought to return politics back to the people. Kalle Knivilä’s <em>Putins verste fiende</em> (<em>Putin’s Worst Enemy</em>) traces how the Federal Security Service&nbsp;(FSB) has dogged Navalny’s every step. This is an important story of the relationship between life and death, fear and courage, and between a free individual and a trapped person.</p> 2022-04-20T08:54:29+02:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2022 Inna Sangadzhieva https://tidsskriftet-nof.no/index.php/noros/article/view/3632 Nexus of Patriotism and Militarism in Russia: A Quest for Internal Cohesion 2022-03-21T11:13:11+01:00 Håvard Bækken havbakken@gmail.com <p><em>Nexus of Patriotism and Militarism in Russia </em>er en viktig artikkelsamling om den russiske militærpatriotismens mange fasetter. Forfatterne forklarer grunnlaget for alliansen mellom «patrioter» og «militarister» internt i statsmaskineriet, og hvordan denne alliansen bruker fiendebilder i sitt forsøk på å presse gjennom en konsensus ovenfra og ned.</p> <p><em>Nexus of Patriotism and Militarism in Russia</em> is an important collection of articles about many aspects of military patriotism in Russia. The authors explain the foundation for an alliance between “patriots” and “militarists” within the state apparatus, and how this alliance uses enemy images in an attempt to force through a consensus top down.</p> 2022-03-18T10:22:12+01:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2022 Håvard Bækken https://tidsskriftet-nof.no/index.php/noros/article/view/3498 Rysk november. En intervjuresa i nordvästligsta Ryssland 2022-03-18T10:29:41+01:00 Bernhard L. Mohr bernhard@mohr.as <p><em>Rysk november. En intervjuresa i nordvästligsta Ryssland </em>er en reiseskildring fra Kola-halvøya og Karelen i Russland, der forfatteren beskriver egne møter underveis med representanter for både sivilsamfunnet og det offentlige. Boka er lettlest og engasjerende, og egner seg for alle som er interessert i samfunnsutviklingen i Russland og arktiske spørsmål.</p> <p><em>Rysk november. En intervjuresa i nordvästligsta Ryssland </em>is a travelogue from the Kola Peninsula and Karelia in Russia, where the author describes his own meetings along the way with representatives of both civil society and the public sector. The book is easy to read and engaging, and suitable for anyone interested in the development of Russian society and the Arctic.</p> 2022-03-18T10:22:00+01:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2022 Bernhard L. Mohr https://tidsskriftet-nof.no/index.php/noros/article/view/3489 The Cultural Is Political: Intersections of Russian Art and State Politics 2022-03-18T10:47:18+01:00 Vera Skvirskaja bdq883@hum.ku.dk <p class="x_xxmsonormal"><em>The Cultural Is Political. Intersections of Russian Art and State Politics,</em> edited by Irina Anisimova and Ingunn Lunde, is an edited volume dealing with various political ideologies and the ambiguous nature of cultural practices in contemporary Russia. The volume is a good introduction to a range of topics in the field of Russian studies.</p> <p class="x_xxmsonormal"><em><span lang="DA">The Cultural Is Political. Intersections of Russian Art and State Politics&nbsp;</span></em><span lang="DA">redigeret av&nbsp;Irina Anisimova og Ingunn Lunde er en artikelsamling, der fokuserer på diverse politiske ideologier og de tvetydige kulturelle former og praksisser i nutidens Rusland. Artikelsamlingen er en god introduktion til russiskstudieområdet.</span></p> 2022-03-18T10:21:44+01:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2022 Vera Skvirskaja https://tidsskriftet-nof.no/index.php/noros/article/view/3515 Den lange kolde krig: Russiske og amerikanske fjendebilleder i 200 år 2022-02-17T10:00:36+01:00 Kristian Gerner kristian.gerner@hist.lu.se <p><em>Den lange kolde krig: Russiske og amerikanske fjendebilleder i 200 år </em>redovisar hur politiker och intellektuella i de två supermakterna uppfattade motparten. Anne Mørk presenterar amerikanska bilder av Ryssland som främmande. Erik Kulavig berättar om den motsägelsefull relationen till USA som en del av Rysslands moderna historia. USA representerade det moderna i sig. Sovjetunionen ville bli modernt. Det kalla kriget mellan USA och Sovjetunionen var asymmetriskt.</p> <p><em>Den lange kolde krig: Russiske og amerikanske fjendebilleder i 200 år (The Long Cold War: Two Centuries of Russian and American Enemy Images) </em>is a&nbsp;study of how politicians and intellectuals in the two states perceived one another. Anne Mörk shows that those in the USA saw the USSR as strange and outlandish. Erik Kulavig tells of contradictory relations with the USA as part of the modern history of Russia. The USA stood out as the incarnation of modernity, and the USSR was striving to become modern. The Cold War between the two was asymmetric.</p> 2022-02-17T09:50:06+01:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2022 Kristian Gerner https://tidsskriftet-nof.no/index.php/noros/article/view/3468 Language and Society in the Caucasus: Understanding the Past, Navigating the Present 2022-02-17T12:05:37+01:00 Ingmar Oldberg ingmar.oldberg@gmail.com <p>Denna festskrift innehåller tio informativa artiklar, mest om Georgien, dess språk, historia och samhälle, men också om tjerkesserna och Tjetjenien i det ryska Nordkaukasus, samt om det armeniska folkmordet. De flesta artiklarna är skrivna av georgiska och svenska forskare som är eller varit knutna till forskningsplattformen The Russia and Caucasus Regional Research (RUCARR) vid Malmö universitet.</p> <p>This <em>Festschrift</em> contains ten informative chapters, mainly about Georgia, its language, history and society, but also about the Circassians and Chechnya in the Russian North Caucasus, as well as the Armenian genocide. Most of the contributions are written by Georgian and Swedish scholars associated with the Russia and the Caucasus Regional Research (RUCARR) platform at Malmö University.</p> 2022-02-17T09:49:30+01:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2022 Ingmar Oldberg https://tidsskriftet-nof.no/index.php/noros/article/view/3457 Sammetsdiktaturen: Motstånd och medlöpare i dagens Ryssland 2022-02-17T12:07:11+01:00 Evgeniya Khoroltseva eugenia@mr-akademiet.no <p>Det er vanskelig å være journalist i dagens Russland. Det at man er en utenlandsk journalist gjør ikke situasjonen bedre. Styresmaktene slår hardt ned på kritisk journalistikk og sivilt engasjement. I&nbsp;<em>Sammetsdiktaturen: Motstand og medløpere i dagens Russland</em> gir&nbsp;Anna-Lena Lauren en verdifull innsikt i journalistvirke i Russland i&nbsp;dag, samt et innblikk i samfunnslivet generelt.<br><br>It is hard to be journalist in Russia today, and being a foreign journalist does not make the situation better. The Russian authorities strike out against critical journalism and civil activism. Anna-Lena Lauren gives valuable insights into journalist realities in Russia as well as life in Russian society more generally in her new book <em>Sammetsdiktaturen: Motstand og medløpere i dagens Russland</em> (<em>Velvet Dictatorship: Resistance and Collaboration in Today’s Russia</em>).</p> 2022-02-17T09:48:57+01:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2022 Evgeniya Khoroltseva https://tidsskriftet-nof.no/index.php/noros/article/view/3455 Weaponized News: Russian Television, Strategic Narratives and Conflict Reporting 2022-02-17T09:58:25+01:00 Karen-Anna Eggen karenaeggen@gmail.com <p>Da president Vladimir Putin kom til makten i Russland på tidlig 2000-tallet, var en viktig del av hans statsbygging å skaffe seg kontroll over medielandskapet hjemme. Evnen til å forme egne innbyggeres oppfatning av virkeligheten har stått sentralt siden, og utover 2010-tallet har dette også inkludert et internasjonalt publikum. Irina Grigor gir oss i sin doktorgradsavhandling i kommunikasjon fra Universitetet i Helsinki, et nærmere innblikk i russisk bruk av media og strategiske narrativer, med et særlig fokus på bruk av visuelle virkemidler i russiske medier i ulike case i løpet av perioden 2012–2016.</p> <p>Since President Putin came to power in the early 2000s, he has increasingly seized control of the domestic media landscape. In addition to Moscow's focus on shaping Russian domestic opinion, there have been similar control attempts aimed at an international audience. In her doctoral dissertation in communications from the University of Helsinki, Irina Grigor provides valuable insights into Russia's use of the media and strategic narratives. Using a case-study approach, Grigor devotes particular attention to the application of visual tools by the Russian media in the 2012–2016 period.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-02-17T00:00:00+01:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2022 Karen-Anna Eggen https://tidsskriftet-nof.no/index.php/noros/article/view/3447 Pollution and Atmosphere in Post-Soviet Russia: The Arctic and the Environment 2022-01-17T13:07:57+01:00 Thomas Nilsen thomas@thebarentsobserver.com <p>Mens journalister har lett for å ty til adjektiver for å beskrive et økologisk katastrofeområde, er det vanskeligere å se og formidle årsakssammenhenger. Hvorfor fikk ikke sovjetiske, senere russiske, myndigheter i samarbeid med sine nordiske naboland stanset de grenseoverskridende svovelskyene fra østsiden av Pasvikelven? Det er disse spørsmålene Lars Rowe på en systematisk og beundringsverdig godt dokumentert måte gir svar på i boken <em>Pollution and Atmosphere in Post-Soviet Russia: The Arctic and the Environment</em>. &nbsp;</p> <p>Journalists easily find adjectives to describe environmental catastrophes; it is more difficult, however, to ascertain and convey their causes. Why, for example, didn’t Soviet, and later Russian, authorities collaborate with Nordic neighbors and manage to put a stop to the sulphur clouds emanating from the eastern side of the Pasvik River? Lars Rowe looks at this question in a systematic and admirably well-documented way and provides answers in his book, <em>Pollution and Atmosphere in Post-Soviet Russia: The Arctic and the Environment</em>. &nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-01-17T12:14:45+01:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2022 Thomas Nilsen https://tidsskriftet-nof.no/index.php/noros/article/view/3406 Political Culture in the Baltic States: Between National and European Integration 2022-01-17T15:20:41+01:00 Jonas Linde jonas.linde@uib.no <p><em>Political Culture in the Baltic States: Between National and European Integration</em>&nbsp;är en gedigen studie av demokratins ställning i de baltiska staterna och den kritiska roll som etniska skiljelinjer kan ha i demokratiseringprocesser. Den har mycket att erbjuda både områdesspecialister och läsare med ett mer allmänt intresse för demokrati och politisk kultur.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>Political Culture in the Baltic States: Between National and European Integration </em>is a thorough study of the situation of democracy in the Baltic states, and the critical role of ethnic cleavages in processes of democratization. It has much to offer to area specialists as well as to readers more generally interested in democracy and political culture.</p> 2022-01-17T12:14:25+01:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2022 Jonas Linde https://tidsskriftet-nof.no/index.php/noros/article/view/3399 Family and the State in Soviet Lithuania: Gender, Law and Society 2022-01-17T13:06:38+01:00 Lars Johannsen johannsen@ps.au.dk <p>Dahlia Lenairte's <em>Family and the State in Soviet Lithuania: Gender, Law and Society</em> (2021) offers an account of the changing role and position of women in the family and in society under the Communist reign in Lithuania. Beginning with the first Soviet occupation before the Second World War, Lenairte details the massive changes from Catholicism to Communism with respect to gender policy, family, divorce, childcare, maternity leave, and finally housing, up until the 1980s. Importantly, she shows that, contrary to common belief about Communist policy, gender equality was in fact never achieved in Soviet Lithuania.</p> <p>Dahlia Lenairtes bog <em>Familie og stat i Sovjet Litauen: Køn, lov og samfund</em> (2021) er en gennemgang af kvinders ændrede roller og position i samfundet og familien under det kommunistisk styre i Litauen. Med et afsæt fra den første sovjetiske besættelse før 2. Verdenskrig viser Lenairte de enorme ændringer der skete fra katolicisme til kommunisme med hensyn til ligestilling, familie, skilsmisse, børnepasning og barselsorlov, og endelig boligsituationen op til begyndelsen af 1980'erne. I modsætning til den almindelige forståelse af kommunistisk ligestillingspolitik bliver det tydeligt, at kvinder aldrig opnåede at blive ligestillet med mænd.</p> 2022-01-17T12:14:07+01:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2022 Lars Johannsen https://tidsskriftet-nof.no/index.php/noros/article/view/3391 Tante Ebba og Revolutionen: Historien om de sønderjyske krigsfangers «danske moder» i Rusland 2022-01-17T15:18:03+01:00 Jens Petter Nielsen jens.petter.nielsen@uit.no <p>Denne boka handler om en dansk kvinne som skjebnen bringer til Russland i 1911 og som senere skriver en interessant øyenvitenberetning om Den russiske revolusjon, der danske, sønderjyske soldater i russisk krigsfangenskap spiller en sentral rolle. &nbsp;</p> <p>The subject of this book is a Danish woman whom fate brought to Russia in 1911. She later&nbsp; wrote an eyewitness account of the Russian Revolution where captured Danish soldiers from South Jutland play an important part.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-01-17T12:13:44+01:00 Opphavsrett (c) 2022 Jens Petter Nielsen